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Study the depths of the discipline of philosophy, which is the critical, normally systematic study of an unlimited range of ideas and issues using rational arguments. Philosophy tackles weighty issues such as the nature of existence, knowledge, language, mind, reason, and values. Philosophy is traditionally broken down into five categories: epistemology, ethics, logic, metaphysics, and the history of philosophy.

Epistemology concerns the nature and scope of knowledge and justification.

Ethics is the philosophical study of morality, particularly conceived as a set of standards of right and wrong conduct.

Logic focuses on providing sound methods for distinguishing valid from invalid arguments. Logic helps us to assess how well our premises support our conclusions, to discover assumptions we didn’t know we were making, to formulate the minimum claims we must establish if we are to prove our point, and to avoid adopting positions for which we lack supporting reasons.

Metaphysics seeks basic criteria for determining what sorts of things are real. Central to metaphysics is ontology, a branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being. Metaphysics traditionally also includes cosmology, which is concerned with the nature of the universe, tackling such issues as whether the universe is infinite and the nature of time.

The history of philosophy examines the major philosophers, including their influence on each other, and major periods in the development of philosophy. The history of philosophy in a single nation (e.g., American philosophy), major movements within a nation (e.g., German idealism), and international movements with a substantial history (e.g., existentialism, logical positivism, phenomenology) are also included in this branch.

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Philosophy Resources

Gale provides philosophy collections that support research for both high school and university students with databasesprimary source archives, and eBooks.


Gale databases offer these philosophy databases to support research.

Primary Source Archives

Gale Primary Sources contains full-text philosophy primary sources that provide researchers with primary source content, including historical documents, printed works, and news articles.

Gale eBooks

Gale offers a variety of eBooks covering a wide range of philosophy publications, including theism, atheism, feminism, and more. Users can add Gale eBooks to a customized collection and cross-search to pinpoint relevant content. Workflow tools help users easily share, save, and download content.

  • Narratives and the Role of Philosophy in Cross-Disciplinary Studies: Emerging Research and Opportunities, 1st Edition

    Narratives and the Role of Philosophy in Cross-Disciplinary Studies: Emerging Research and Opportunities, 1st Edition

    Information Science Reference | 2018 | ISBN-13: 9781522555735

    Every life has certain moments that define it. Going beyond the day-to-day norms of living, these life experiences have a profound effect on the person and the life lived. This title is a critical scholarly research publication that focuses on the multidisciplinary aspects of philosophy. Featuring coverage on a wide range of topics such as life-changing events, exemplary figures, and the role of philosophy, this book is geared toward academicians, researchers, and students seeking current and relevant research on the importance of narrative in a multidisciplinary investigation into the identity of people and events.

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  • Philosophy: Feminism, 1st Edition

    Philosophy: Feminism, 1st Edition

    Macmillan Reference USA | 2018 | ISBN-13: 9780028663432

    This title is composed of 16 chapters covering such topics as human nature, intersectionality, sexism and oppression, LGBTQ theory, ecofeminism, and power. The use of film, literature, art, case studies, and other disciplines or situations/events provide illustrations of human experiences that work as gateways to questions philosophers try to address. Chapters are written by eminent scholars, are peer reviewed, and offer bibliographies to encourage further exploration. Photos and line art help illuminate the text. The volume concludes with a glossary and a comprehensive index.

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  • Theism and Atheism: Opposing Arguments in Philosophy, 1st Edition

    Theism and Atheism: Opposing Arguments in Philosophy, 1st Edition

    Macmillan Reference USA | 2019 | ISBN-13: 9780028664460

    Theism and Atheism: Opposing Arguments in Philosophy is a peer-reviewed, academic volume that has two separate editors in chief with their respective editorial boards. The atheism side is led by Graham Oppy (Australian philosopher, Monash University). The theism side is led by Joseph W. Koterski, S.J. (American philosopher, Fordham University) and includes Christian, Jewish, and Muslim philosophers.

    The two editorial boards worked together to identify 20 key topics in philosophical debates regarding arguments for and against the existence of God (e.g., religious experience, miracles, our universe, human beings, science and religion, etc.). The single volume is split into 40 total topics. The format is such that an author taking the side of theism, for example, composes a chapter on a topic, followed by an atheism author covering the same topic.

    The title presents complex philosophical counter perspectives in a lucid manner. It grapples with issues that have occupied philosophers for more than two millennia. These include the sufficiency/insufficiency of an empirical explanation for the existence of the universe; the capacity/incapacity of the empirical sciences to draw conclusions about a possible infinite being; the validity/invalidity of philosophical arguments regarding the existence of an infinite being; various notions of infinity; the “problem of evil;” and so on.

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Resources to Boost Your Research

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